Share it with your friends Like

Thanks! Share it with your friends!

Close

Самоназвание этрусков, которые прошли в Италию через Малую Азию, Грецию и Югославию, было расика, а не рышика. Слово Россия (или разговорное Расия) восходит к санскр. раса («роса», влага, река).

Раса — это священная река Зодиака, в Иране это название звучит как Раха, а в России — как Рось (приток Днепра).

Отсюда — имя супруги Брахмы (творца мира) Сарасвати (Соросьеватая, Полноводная) иначе называемая Брахма-Путрой (Дочерью Брахмы). Эта полноводная река протекает там, где и должна протекать, согласно Ведам и Итихасам, — на востоке Индии. А за ней располагалась страна Брахмы (нынешняя Бирма, переименованная в Мьянму).

От корня «раса» происходит Расин (ср. с русским Разин, разить, выразить, заразить и т.п.), ведийский эпитет Индры (полной луны) как «военачальника» дэвов, синодических месяцев.

Санскр. «расин» означает того, кто наделён вкусом, в том числе, художественным, и хорошо разбирается в искусстве, в первую очередь, в театральном, и знает или владеет девятью основными страстями (нава-раса) — расами: спокойствием, удивлением, любовью, милосердием, смелостью, гневом, отвращением, страхом и смехом.

Замечание о сходстве санскрита с русским

Rasa (aesthetics)

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

In Indian aesthetics, a rasa (Sanskrit: रस) literally means «juice, essence or taste».[1][2] It connotes a concept in Indian arts about the aesthetic flavour of any visual, literary or musical work that evokes an emotion or feeling in the reader or audience but cannot be described.[2] It refers to the emotional flavors/essence crafted into the work by the writer and relished by a ‘sensitive spectator’ or sahṛdaya, literally one who is «with heart», and can connect to the work with emotion, without dryness.

Rasas are created by bhavas:[3] the state of mind.

The rasa theory has a dedicated section (Chapter 6) in the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra, an ancient scripture attributed to Bharata Muni. Its most complete explanation is found in the commentary of the Kashmiri Shaivite philosopher Abhinavagupta (c. 1000 CE).

Although the concept of rasa is fundamental to many forms of Indian arts including dancemusic, theatre, painting, sculpture, and literature, the interpretation and implementation of a particular rasa differs between different styles and schools. The Indian theory of rasa is also found in the Hindu arts and Ramayana musical productions in Bali and Java (Indonesia), but with regional creative evolution.

Bharata Muni enunciated the eight Rasas in the Nātyasāstra. In the Indian performing arts, a rasa is a sentiment or emotion evoked in each member of the audience by the art. The Natya Shastra mentions six rasa in one section, but in the dedicated section on rasa it states and discusses eight primary rasa. Each rasa, according to Nātyasāstra, has a presiding deity and a specific colour. There are 4 pairs of rasas. For instance, Hāsya arises out of Sringara. The Aura of a frightened person is black, and the aura of an angry person is red. Bharata Muni established the following:

  • Śṛṅgāraḥ (शृङ्गारः): Romance, Love, attractiveness. Presiding deity: Vishnu. Colour: light green
  • Hāsyam (हास्यं): Laughter, mirth, comedy. Presiding deity: Shiva. Colour: white
  • Raudram (रौद्रं): Fury. Presiding deity: Shiva. Colour: red
  • Kāruṇyam (कारुण्यं): Compassion, mercy. Presiding deity: Yama. Colour: grey
  • Bībhatsam (बीभत्सं): Disgust, aversion. Presiding deity: Shiva. Colour: blue
  • Bhayānakam (भयानकं): Horror, terror. Presiding deity: Yama. Colour: black
  • Veeram (वीरं): Heroism. Presiding deity: Indra. Colour: saffron
  • Adbhutam (अद्भुतं): Wonder, amazement. Presiding deity: Brahma. Colour: yellow.

Śāntam rasa

A ninth rasa was added by later authors. This addition had to undergo a good deal of struggle between the sixth and the tenth centuries, before it could be accepted by the majority of the Alankarikas, and the expression «Navarasa» (the nine rasas), could come into vogue.

  • Śāntam: Peace or tranquility. deity: Vishnu. Colour: perpetual white.

Shānta-rasa functions as an equal member of the set of rasas, but it is simultaneously distinct as being the most clear form of aesthetic bliss. Abhinavagupta likens it to the string of a jeweled necklace; while it may not be the most appealing for most people, it is the string that gives form to the necklace, allowing the jewels of the other eight rasas to be relished. Relishing the rasas and particularly shānta-rasa is hinted as being as-good-as but never-equal-to the bliss of Self-realization experienced by yogis.

List of bhavas

According to the Natyashastra, bhavas are of three types: sthayi, sanchari, sattvika based on how they are developed or enacted during the aesthetic experience. This is seen in the following passage:

पुनश्च भावान्वक्ष्यामि स्थायिसञ्चारिसत्त्वजान्॥६.१६॥

Some bhavas are also described as being anubhava if they arise from some other bhAva.

Sthayee

The Natyasastra lists eight Sthayibhavas with eight corresponding rasas:

  • Rati (Love)
  • Hasya (Mirth)
  • Soka'(शोक)’ (Sorrow)
  • Krodha (Anger)
  • Utsaha (Energy)
  • Bhaya (Terror)
  • Jugupsa (Disgust)
  • Vismaya (Astonishment)

This list is from the following passage:

रतिहासश्च शोकश्च क्रोधोत्साहौ भयं तथा।
जुगुप्सा विस्मयश्चेति स्थायिभावाः प्रकीर्तिताः॥६.१७॥

Sanchari

Sanchari Bhavas are those crossing feelings which are ancillary to a permanent mood.[26] A list of 33 bhAvas are identified therein.

निर्वेदग्लानिशङ्काख्यास्तथासूया मदः श्रमः।
आलस्यं चैव दैन्यं च चिन्तामोहः स्मृतिर्धृतिः॥१८॥
व्रीडा चपलता हर्ष आवेगो जडता तथा।
गर्वो विषाद औत्सुक्यं निद्रापस्मार एव च॥१९॥
सुप्तं विबोधोऽमर्षश्चापि अवहित्थं अथोग्रता।
मतिर्व्याधिस्तथा उन्मादस्तथा मरणमेव च॥२०॥
त्रासश्चैव वितर्कश्च विज्ञेया व्यभिचारिणः।
त्रयस्त्रिंशदमी भावाः समाख्यातास्तु नामतः॥२१॥

Satvika

The Satvika-Bhavas themselves are listed below. There are eight Satvika-Bhavas.

स्तम्भः स्वेदोऽथ रोमाञ्चः स्वरभेदोऽथ वेपथुः।
वैवर्ण्यं अश्रु-प्रलय इत्यष्टौ सात्विकाः स्मृताः॥२२॥

These are explained by Bharata and Dhanika as below:

«सत्त्वं नाम मनःप्रभवम्। एतदेव समाहितमनस्त्वादुत्पद्यते। » इति भरतः।
«एतदेवास्य सत्त्वं यत् दुःखितेन प्रहर्षितेन वा अश्रु-रोमाञ्चादयो निवर्त्यन्ते।
तेन सत्त्वेन निर्वृत्ता भावाः — सात्त्विकाः भावाः। तद्भावभावनं च भावः।» इति धनिकः।
«पृथग् भावा भवन्त्यन्येऽनुभावत्वेऽपि सात्त्विकाः।
सत्त्वादेव समुत्पत्तेस्तच्च तद्भावभावनम्॥» इति धनिकः।

Thus, physical expression of the feelings of the mind are called Sattvika.

Rasa is a fusion of word and meaning,
that bathes the minds of readers,
with savor of bliss.
It is the truth of poetry,
shining without cessation.
Clear to the heart,
it is yet beyond the words.

Hrsikesa[10]

In the theories of Indian poetics, ancient scholars state that the effectiveness of a literary composition depends both on what is stated and how it is stated (words, grammar, rhythm), that is the suggested meaning and the experience of rasa.[10] Among the most celebrated in Hindu traditions on the theory of poetics and literary works, are 5th-century Bhartrhari and the 9th-century Anandavardhana, but the theoretical tradition on integrating rasa into literary artworks likely goes back to a more ancient period. This is generally discussed under the Indian concepts of DhvaniSabdatattva and Sphota.[30][10][31]

In the Indian theories on sculpture and architecture (Shilpa Shastras), the rasa theories, in part, drive the forms, shapes, arrangements and expressions in images and structures. Some Indian texts on Shilpa on image carving and making, suggest nine rasas.

Influence on cinema

Rasa has been an important influence on the cinema of IndiaSatyajit Ray has applied the Rasa method of classical Sanskrit drama to movies, for instance in The Apu Trilogy (1955–1959).[35]

In Hindi cinema, it is the theme of the film Naya Din Nayi Raat, where Sanjeev Kumar played nine characters corresponding to nine Rasa.

See also

The following two tabs change content below.

Tristan Jones

Latest posts by Tristan Jones (see all)

  • Rating:
  • Views:134 views
  • Tags: -
  • Categories: Sanskrit

Comments

Write a comment

*